Industrial cluster is an important organizational form of modern industrial development, not only a leading force for regional economic development, but also a strategic force for international economic competition. Comrade Xi Jinping stressed in the party's 19th report that China's industry should be promoted to the middle and high end of the global value chain and a number of world-class advanced manufacturing clusters should be cultivated. Therefore, we must deepen our understanding of industrial clusters, grasp the stage features of the development of industrial clusters in our country, and constantly improve the competitiveness of industrial clusters in our country.
In history, industrial clusters have made great contributions to the economic development of various countries. According to modern economics, industrial clusters refer to the economic phenomenon of concentrated production of products, enterprises supporting specialization and cooperation and various related institutions and organizations within a certain regional scope, with market-oriented and small and medium-sized enterprises as the main body. Compared with the decentralized industrial development model, industrial clusters can achieve scale effect and agglomeration effect, reduce production costs and transaction costs, thus forming a competitive advantage. Moreover, competition and cooperation among enterprises in industrial clusters can also stimulate innovation vitality and promote technological innovation, organizational innovation and institutional innovation of enterprises. The continuous competitive advantage formed by industrial clusters through spatial agglomeration has become a strong support for economic development in many regions and countries.
Since the reform and opening up, relying on the comparative advantages of low cost and low price, China's industrial clusters have successfully achieved a historic leap from weak to strong in the world industrial development pattern. However, it should also be noted that after the outbreak of the international financial crisis in 2008, the international industrial competition situation has undergone significant changes, and the cost of labor, land and resources and environment in China has risen rapidly, severely weakening the low-cost advantage on which traditional industrial clusters rely for survival and development. At the same time, the old industrial powers such as the United States and Germany have successively put forward the strategy of re-industrialization and industry 4.0, and have made great efforts in the advanced manufacturing industry. These factors make the competitiveness of China's industrial clusters face severe challenges: on the one hand, the traditional industries have been deeply adjusted and the competitiveness of industrial clusters has declined; On the other hand, the source of competitiveness of modern industrial clusters has not been fully activated and new competitive advantages have not yet been formed. In order to comprehensively analyze the domestic and international situation and enhance the competitive advantage of industrial clusters in China, it is urgent to change the source of competitiveness of industrial clusters from low-cost investment to innovation-driven and optimized resource allocation.
To form an innovation network and promote the development of industrial clusters. Innovation is the first driving force leading development and the fundamental way to enhance the competitiveness of industrial clusters. At present, the traditional industrial system characterized by high input and consumption of resources, standardized large-scale production, and high efficiency is changing to a modern industrial system that is more economical, efficient, cleaner, and more beneficial to the people. To enhance the competitiveness of industrial clusters, innovation must be the driving force. We should establish a technology innovation system that takes enterprises as the main body, takes the market as the guidance, and integrates production, education and research deeply, especially give full play to the advantages of industrial cluster gathering development and collaborative innovation, and accelerate the formation of innovation networks. To strengthen support for industrial clusters with great potential in technology research and development, build industrial common technology platforms relying on key backbone enterprises, strengthen key technology research in core areas, and continuously promote technology spillover and transfer, so as to enhance the level of industrial technology and enhance the ability of collaborative innovation. Actively participate in or lead the formulation of standards, strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights, enhance the overall innovation capability of industrial clusters, and promote China's creation to jump to the top of the global industrial chain and value chain.